Frontline Attack War Over Europe Full Download' title='Frontline Attack War Over Europe Full Download' />UN News Centre Official site for daily UN news, press releases, statements, briefings and calendar of events. Includes UN radio, video, webcasts, magazines. Definition of Terrorism the unlawful use of or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or. Strategic bombing during World War IIStrategic bombing during World War IIPart of World War IIA B 2. Astra Romana refinery in Ploieti, Romania, during Operation Tidal Wave1Belligerents United States United Kingdom Canada Australia Soviet Union. China Germany Japan. Frontline Attack War Over Europe Full Download' title='Frontline Attack War Over Europe Full Download' />Italy. Commanders and leaders. Hap Arnold. Carl Spaatz. Esl Pdf Books Free Download. Curtis Le. May. Charles Portal. Richard Peirse. Arthur Harris. Arthur Tedder. Clifford Mc. Ewen. Sergei Khudyakov. Alexander Novikov. Alexander Golovanov. Hermann Gring. Albert Kesselring. Kurt Student. Hugo Sperrle. Naruhiko Higashikuni. Mitsuo Fuchida. Masakazu Kawabe. Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory. Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more. See world news photos and videos at ABCNews. The following is a list of programs from the Public Broadcasting Services public affairs television documentary series Frontline. All episodes, unless otherwise. The 2017 IPO market s final two week sprint kicks off this week with six IPOs targeting 731 million Read Full Story. Chichi Nagumo. Rino Corso Fougier. Francesco Pricolo. Ettore Muti. Casualties and losses. Britain 6. 0,0. 00 civilians killed21. Europe34China 2. Chinese civilians56France 6. The Netherlands Poland Tens of thousands of civilians. USSR More than 5. Soviet civilians82,7. Japan9Germany 3. Very heavy damage to industry. Japan 3. 30,0. 005. Very heavy damage to industry. Italy 6. 0,0. 001. Heavy damage to industry. Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II. Strategic bombing is a military strategy which is distinct from both close air support of ground forces and tactical air power. During World War II, it was believed by many military strategists of air power that major victories could be won by attacking industrial and political infrastructure, rather than purely military targets. Strategic bombing often involved bombing areas inhabited by civilians and some campaigns were deliberately designed to target civilian populations in order to terrorize and disrupt their usual activities. International law at the outset of World War II did not specifically forbid aerial bombardment of cities despite the prior occurrence of such bombing during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and the Second Sino Japanese War. Strategic bombing during World War II began on 1 September 1. Germany invaded Poland and the Luftwaffe German Air Force began bombing cities and the civilian population in Poland in an indiscriminate aerial bombardment campaign. As the war continued to expand, bombing by both the Axis and the Allies increased significantly. The RAF began bombing Germany in March 1. In September 1. 94. Luftwaffe began targeting British cities in The Blitz. After the beginning of Operation Barbarossa in June 1. Luftwaffe attacked Soviet cities and infrastructure. From 1. 94. 2 onward, the British bombing campaign against Germany became less restrictive and increasingly targeted industrial sites and eventually, civilian areas. When the United States began flying bombing missions against Germany, it reinforced these efforts and controversial firebombings were carried out against Hamburg 1. Dresden 1. 94. 5, and other German cities. In the Pacific War, the Japanese bombed civilian populations throughout the war e. Chongqing. The US air raids on Japan began in earnest in October 1. March 1. 94. 5 had started their escalation into widespread firebombing, which culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1. The effect of strategic bombing was highly debated during and after the war. Both the Luftwaffe and RAF failed to deliver a knockout blow by destroying enemy morale. However some argued that strategic bombing of non military targets could significantly reduce enemy industrial capacity and production2. Japan vindicated strategic bombing. The Hague Conventions of 1. Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfare, it was not updated before the outbreak of World War II. The absence of specific international humanitarian law did not mean aerial warfare was not covered under the laws of war, but rather that there was no general agreement of how to interpret those laws. This means that aerial bombardment of civilian areas in enemy territory by all major belligerents during World War II was not prohibited by positive or specific customary international humanitarian law. Many reasons exist for the absence of international law regarding aerial bombing in World War II. Most nations had refused to ratify such laws or agreements because of the vague or impractical wording in treaties such as the 1. Hague Rules of Air Warfare. Also, the major powers possession of newly developed advanced bombers was a great military advantage they would not accept any negotiated limitations regarding this new weapon. In the absence of specific laws relating to aerial warfare, the belligerents aerial forces at the start of World War II used the 1. Hague Conventions signed and ratified by most major powers as the customary standard to govern their conduct in warfare, and these conventions were interpreted by both sides to allow the indiscriminate bombing of enemy cities throughout the war. General Telford Taylor, Chief Counsel for War Crimes at the Nuremberg Trials, wrote that If the first badly bombed cities Warsaw, Rotterdam, Belgrade, and London suffered at the hands of the Germans and not the Allies, nonetheless the ruins of German and Japanese cities were the results not of reprisal but of deliberate policy, and bore witness that aerial bombardment of cities and factories has become a recognized part of modern warfare as carried out by all nations. Article 2. 5 of the 1. Hague Conventions on Land Warfare also did not provide a clear guideline on the extent to which civilians may be spared the same can be held for naval forces. Consequently, cyclical arguments, such as those advanced by Italian general and air power theorist Giulio Douhet, do not appear to violate any of the Conventions provisions. Due to these reasons, the Allies at the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials never criminalized aerial bombardment of non combatant targets and Axis leaders who ordered a similar type of practice were not prosecuted. Chris Jochnick and Roger Normand in their article The Legitimation of Violence 1 A Critical History of the Laws of War explains that By leaving out morale bombing and other attacks on civilians unchallenged, the Tribunal conferred legal legitimacy on such practices. Policy at the start of the wareditBefore World War II began, the rapid pace of aviation technology created a belief that groups of bombers would be capable of devastating cities. For example, British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin warned in 1. The bomber will always get through. When the war began on 1 September 1. Germanys invasion of Poland, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the neutral United States, issued an appeal to the major belligerents Britain, France, Germany, and Poland to confine their air raids to military targets, and under no circumstances undertake bombardment from the air of civilian populations in unfortified cities3. The British and French agreed to abide by the request, with the British reply undertaking to confine bombardment to strictly military objectives upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all their opponents. Germany also agreed to abide by Roosevelts request and explained the bombing of Warsaw as within the agreement because it was supposedly a fortified cityGermany did not have a policy of targeting enemy civilians as part of their doctrine prior to World War II.